Wednesday, March 29, 2023

Linux security and kernel Lockdown - kernel image access prevention feature

Linux has a long history of security-focused development and has been used in many high-security environments, such as military and government organizations. Linux is highly customizable, which allows administrators to tailor security configurations to their specific needs. For example, security modules like SELinux and AppArmor can be configured to enforce highly granular access control policies. Many Linux distributions include security-focused features, such as hardening patches and secure boot support, by default.The open-source nature of Linux allows for community-driven development and auditing, which can help to uncover security vulnerabilities and improve the overall security of the system. Linux containers, such as Docker and Kubernetes, have become increasingly popular in recent years and offer a more secure alternative to traditional virtualization solutions. Linux is widely used in cloud environments and has many built-in features for secure cloud deployments, such as network isolation and encryption. It is constantly being updated and improved with new security features and bug fixes, making it one of the most secure operating systems available.

The Kernel Lockdown feature is designed to prevent both direct and indirect access to a running kernel image, attempting to protect against unauthorized modification of the kernel image and to prevent access to security and cryptographic data located in kernel memory, whilst still permitting driver modules to be loaded. This is security feature, the Linux Security Module (LSM, nicknamed “lockdown”). It does promise to bring additional security to one of the most widely-used and hardened kernels on the market. The lockdown feature’s aim is to restrict various pieces of kernel functionality.  There are two modes available to the lockdown module: Integrity and Confidentiality. When in Integrity mode, kernel features which would allow userland code to modify the running kernel are disabled. When in Confidentiality mode, userland code to extract confidential information from the kernel will be disabled.First off, it will restrict access to kernel features that may allow arbitrary code execution by way of code supplied by any application or service outside of the kernel (aka “userland”). The new feature will also block processes from reading/writing to /dev/mem and /dev/kmem memory, as well as block access to opening /dev/port (as a means to prevent raw ioport access). Other features include:
  1. Enforcing kernel module signatures.
  2. Prevents even the root account from modifying the kernel code.
  3. Kexec reboot (in case secure boot being enabled does not keep the secure boot mode in new kernel).
  4. Lockdown of hardware that could potentially generate direct memory addressing (DMA).
  5. Lockdown of KDADDIO, KDDELIO, KDENABIO and KDDISABIO console ioctls.
  • The KDADDIO, KDDELIO, KDENABIO, and KDDISABIO console ioctls are used to manage console input/output (I/O) on Linux systems. Here's a brief overview of each of these ioctls:
  • KDADDIO: This ioctl is used to add a new input/output device to the console. When a new device is added using KDADDIO, it can be used to send input to or receive output from the console.
  • KDDELIO: This ioctl is used to remove an input/output device from the console. When a device is removed using KDDELIO, it is no longer able to send input to or receive output from the console.
  • KDENABIO: This ioctl is used to enable input/output from a specific device on the console. When a device is enabled using KDENABIO, it can be used to send input to or receive output from the console.
  • KDDISABIO: This ioctl is used to disable input/output from a specific device on the console. When a device is disabled using KDDISABIO, it is no longer able to send input to or receive output from the console.
NOTE: The "KD" in these console ioctls stands for Keyboard Display. The term "keyboard display" is used to refer to the console on a computer system, which includes the keyboard and screen used to interact with the system

If a prohibited or restricted feature is accessed or used, the kernel will emit a message that looks like:

        Lockdown: X: Y is restricted, see man kernel_lockdown.7

where X indicates the process name and Y indicates what is restricted. On an EFI-enabled x86 or arm64 machine, lockdown will be automatically enabled if the system boots in EFI Secure Boot mode.

Coverage: When lockdown is in effect, a number of features are disabled or have their use restricted.  This includes special device files and kernel services that allow direct access of the kernel image:


and the ability to directly configure and control devices, so as to prevent the use of a device to access or modify a kernel image:The use of module parameters that directly specify hardware parameters to drivers through the kernel command line or when loading a module.

The term "lockdown" refers to a set of security features in the Linux kernel that are designed to prevent even privileged users, such as the root user, from bypassing certain security restrictions. These features are intended to provide an additional layer of protection against malicious software and unauthorized access to sensitive information.

There are two main components to the lockdown feature:

Integrity measurement: This feature prevents changes to the kernel's security settings, such as disabling secure boot or loading unsigned kernel modules, even by users with root privileges.

Confidentiality protection: This feature prevents user space processes from accessing certain sensitive information, such as kernel memory or hardware resources, even if the processes are running with root privileges.

The lockdown feature is a powerful tool for enhancing the security of Linux systems, particularly in high-security environments or those where data privacy is a top concern. However, it can also limit the flexibility of the system, so it's important to carefully consider the trade-offs before enabling this feature.


The lockdown feature and SELinux are both security features in the Linux kernel, but they serve different purposes and work independently of each other.

SELinux is a mandatory access control (MAC) system that enforces a set of security policies to determine what processes and users can access specific resources, such as files or network ports. It operates by labeling resources with a security context and assigning labels to users and processes. The security policies defined in SELinux are enforced by the kernel and can prevent unauthorized access and other security breaches.

The lockdown feature, on the other hand, is designed to prevent even privileged users, including those with root privileges, from bypassing certain security restrictions. It achieves this by restricting access to certain kernel features and preventing modifications to the kernel's security settings.

When both SELinux and the lockdown feature are enabled, they work together to provide a comprehensive security solution. SELinux enforces mandatory access controls to restrict access to resources, while the lockdown feature ensures that even privileged users cannot bypass certain security restrictions. This can help to prevent security breaches caused by malicious software or unauthorized access to sensitive information.

The combination of SELinux and the lockdown feature provides a powerful security solution for Linux systems. It's important to carefully configure and manage these features to ensure that they do not interfere with normal system operations or cause unintended consequences.

The idea of effectively rendering the root account less capable of working with a system (on a kernel level), might be considered (to some) a disservice to Linux (and Linux administrators). However, in the realm of business, absolute security is a necessity — especially on machines that house sensitive business/customer data. When the root account is under a form of strict lockdown, malicious code would be significantly more challenging to run rampant on a system. This could lead to fewer data breaches. And because the kernel developers are making the lockdown feature “optional,” it is possible for enterprise admins to enable the feature on production machines that store such sensitive data. Conversely, on standard desktop machines (or developer machines) the feature can remain disabled.

Linux kernel has several security features built into it to protect against various types of security threats. Some of the additional security features of Linux kernel include:

1) AppArmor: AppArmor is a mandatory access control (MAC) system that restricts the capabilities of individual applications or processes. It can be used to enforce security policies that limit the actions of individual applications, such as restricting access to certain files or network resources.

2) Control Groups (cgroups): cgroups provide a way to organize and manage system resources, such as CPU, memory, and I/O bandwidth, among different processes. This helps to prevent individual processes from monopolizing system resources, which can improve system performance and stability.

3) Kernel SamePage Merging (KSM): KSM allows multiple identical memory pages to be merged into a single page, reducing memory usage and improving system performance. However, this feature also presents a potential security risk, as it could allow an attacker to create a malicious page that looks like a legitimate page, thereby bypassing memory protection measures.

4) Executable Space Protection: Executable Space Protection is a security feature that prevents execution of code from memory pages that are marked as data or stack. This helps to prevent buffer overflow and other types of attacks that rely on executing code in memory regions that are not intended for code execution.

5) Secure Boot: Secure Boot is a security feature that ensures that only trusted software is executed during system boot-up. It uses cryptographic signatures to verify the authenticity of boot loaders and other critical components of the system, preventing unauthorized or malicious software from running at boot time.

6) Address Space Layout Randomization (ASLR): This feature randomizes the memory layout of user space programs, making it more difficult for attackers to exploit vulnerabilities in the program's code.

7) Seccomp: This feature provides a mechanism for filtering system calls that can be made by a process, allowing administrators to restrict the system calls that can be made by certain programs.

8) Trusted Platform Module (TPM): This is a hardware-based security feature that provides a secure storage area for cryptographic keys and other sensitive data. It can be used to enhance the security of system booting, disk encryption, and other security-related functions.

9)  SELinux similar to AppArmor. These are two popular security modules that provide mandatory access control (MAC) enforcement in the Linux kernel. They use security policies to define what resources, such as files and network ports, can be accessed by which processes and users.


The Linux kernel includes a variety of cryptography algorithms that can be used to provide secure communication, storage, and other security-related functions. Here are some of the key cryptography algorithms and features in the Linux kernel:

1) Advanced Encryption Standard (AES): AES is a symmetric encryption algorithm that is widely used for data encryption. The Linux kernel includes an implementation of AES that can be used by applications and other kernel subsystems.

2) RSA: RSA is an asymmetric encryption algorithm that is used for digital signatures and key exchange. The Linux kernel includes an implementation of RSA that can be used by applications and other kernel subsystems.

3) SHA: SHA (Secure Hash Algorithm) is a family of cryptographic hash functions that are used for digital signatures, data integrity checking, and other security-related functions. The Linux kernel includes implementations of several SHA algorithms, including SHA-1, SHA-256, and SHA-512.

4) Random Number Generation: Random number generation is a critical component of many cryptographic functions. The Linux kernel includes several sources of entropy that are used to generate high-quality random numbers for use in cryptography algorithms.

5) Cryptographic API: The Linux kernel includes a Cryptographic API that provides a standard interface for using cryptographic functions in kernel modules and applications. The API includes support for a wide range of cryptographic algorithms and features, including those listed above.

6) Filesystem Encryption: The Linux kernel includes support for encrypting filesystems using the dm-crypt subsystem. This allows for encrypted storage of sensitive data and can be used to protect against data theft in the event of a system breach.

7) IPSec: IPSec is a protocol suite for securing IP communications, including VPNs and other types of network connections. The Linux kernel includes support for IPSec, which can be used to secure network communications between Linux systems.

Linux kernel has a wide range of built-in security features that can help to protect against various types of security threats. Linux-based security offers a wide range of benefits, including customizability, community-driven development, and a long history of use in high-security environments. These factors have helped to make Linux a popular choice for organizations looking to enhance the security of their systems and data.


Tuesday, March 28, 2023

Non-Uniform Memory Access Architecture

Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA) is a computer memory design used in multiprocessors, where the memory access time depends on the distance between the CPU and the memory.  In a NUMA system, each CPU has access to its own local memory as well as remote memory, which can cause performance issues if not managed properly.

In the Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA) architecture, the path from processor to memory is non-uniform. This organization enables the construction of systems with a large number of processors, and hence the association with very large systems. A NUMA system with cache-coherent memory running a single OS image is still an SMP system. A general representation of the NUMA system is shown below.

NUMA Architecture

The system is comprised of multiple nodes each with 2-4 processors, a memory controller, memory and perhaps IO. There might be a separate node controller, or the MC and NC could be integrated. The nodes could be connected by a shared bus, or may implement a cross-bar.

 By classifying memory location bases on signal path length from the processor to the memory, latency and bandwidth bottlenecks can be avoided. This is done by redesigning the whole system of processor and chipset.  AMD Opteron family was introduced featuring integrated memory controllers with each CPU owning designated memory banks. Each CPU has now its own memory address space. A NUMA optimized operating system such as ESXi allows workload to consume memory from both memory addresses spaces while optimizing for local memory access. Let’s use an example of a two CPU system to clarify the distinction between local and remote memory access within a single system.


The memory connected to the memory controller of the CPU1 is considered to be local memory. Memory connected to another CPU socket (CPU2)is considered to be foreign or remote for CPU1. Remote memory access has additional latency overhead to local memory access, as it has to traverse an interconnect (point-to-point link) and connect to the remote memory controller. As a result of the different memory locations, this system experiences “non-uniform” memory access time.

HP Prema:

A node comprises four processors, memory, IO and a pair of node controllers. There are three IOH devices in the system. The processors and memory on the CPU board are connected to the XNC board with the node controllers.


The "isolcpus" kernel parameter is used to isolate one or more CPUs from the kernel scheduler.  This is typically used for running real-time or high-performance applications that require dedicated CPU resources.  However, it does not have any direct relationship with NUMA nodes.

vi  /etc/default/grub

Find the line that starts with "GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT" and add "numa=off" to the end of the line:

GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT="quiet splash numa=off"

Regenerate the GRUB configuration file by running the following command:


grub2-mkconfig -o /boot/grub2/grub.cfg

Reboot the system for the changes to take effect

Note that after disabling NUMA, the system will treat all memory as a single, uniform memory pool. This may not always improve performance


Certainly, here's an example of how to use the "isolcpus" command to isolate CPU cores from the kernel scheduler:

Find out the number of available CPU cores by running:

cat /proc/cpuinfo | grep processor | wc -l

To isolate one or more CPU cores from the kernel scheduler, append the "isolcpus" parameter to the kernel boot command in the GRUB configuration file. For example, to isolate CPU core 0, edit the GRUB configuration file by running:


Add the "isolcpus" parameter followed by the CPU core number(s) to the end of the "GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT" line. For example:

GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT="quiet splash isolcpus=0"

If you want to isolate multiple cores, separate them with commas. For example:

GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT="quiet splash isolcpus=0,2"

save and update-grub

Reboot the system for the changes to take effect.

After isolating the specified CPU cores with the "isolcpus" parameter, you can assign them to a specific process using the "taskset" command. For example, to run a process on CPU core 0, run:

taskset -c 0 <command>

Note that isolating CPU cores can affect system performance, so it's important to test your application's performance before and after isolating CPU cores to see if it has any effect on performance.

# cat /proc/cpuinfo | grep processor | wc -l
# taskset -c 0 hostname
# taskset -c 18 hostname
taskset: failed to set pid 11896's affinity: Invalid argument
# taskset -c 16 hostname
taskset: failed to set pid 12131's affinity: Invalid argument
# taskset -c 15 hostname
# taskset -c 11,15 hostname

on PPC arch :  /etc/grub.conf

Find the line that starts with "append" and add "isolcpus" parameter followed by the CPU core number(s) to the end of the line. For example

append="quiet splash isolcpus=0,2"

Ater isolating the specified CPU cores with the "isolcpus" parameter, you can assign them to a specific process using the "taskset" command

check your  kernel supports isolcpus:

grep -i isolcpus /boot/config-$(uname -r)

This command searches for the "isolcpus" parameter in the kernel configuration file for the currently running kernel.

If the output of the command shows a line that looks like this:


then your kernel supports isolating CPU cores with the "isolcpus" parameter.

Some Linux distributions may not include the kernel configuration file in the /boot directory. In that case, you may need to install the "kernel-devel" or "kernel-source" package to access the kernel configuration file

NOTE: Another way of making CPU offline:
echo 0 > /sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu7/online (to offline cpu)
change cpu number with required cpu


Simultaneous multithreading (SMT) is a processor design that combines hardware multithreading with superscalar processor technology. Simultaneous multithreading can use multiple threads to issue instructions each cycle.

Example: How enable SMT  and check  on power architecture(PPC): 

# cat
while [ 1 ]
        ppc64_cpu --smt=off
        ppc64_cpu --smt
        ppc64_cpu --smt=on
        ppc64_cpu --smt
        ppc64_cpu --smt=2
        ppc64_cpu --smt
        ppc64_cpu --smt=4
        ppc64_cpu --smt